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131. Kharel, Y.; Huang, T.; Dunnavant, K..; Foster, D.; Souza G. M. P. R.; Nimchuk, K. T.; Merchak, A. R.; Pavelec, C. M.; Gaultier, A.; Abbott, S. B. G.; Shin, J. B.; Xu, W.; Leitinger, N.; Santos, W. L.; Lynch, K. R. Assessing Spns2-Dependent S1P Transport as a Prospective Therapeutic Target Using a New Chemical Probe. Preprint. bioRxiv. 2024.



130. Foster, D.; Dunnavant, K.; Shrader, C. W.; LoPresti, M. Q.; Seay, S.; Kharel, Y.; Huang, T.; Brown, A. M.; Lynch, K. R.; Santos, W. L. Discovery of Potent, Orally Bioavailable Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Transporter (Spns2) Inhibitor. 2024, under review.




129. Li, W.; Ricker, R.; Chan, K.L.; Lau, P.F.; Buchbinder, N.W.; Krebs, J.; Friedrich, A.; Lin, Z.; Santos, W.L.; Radius, U.; Marder, T.B. Phosphine-catalyzed 1,2-cis-diboration of 1,3-butadiynes. Chem. Eur. J. in press. DOI:10.1002/chem.202401235

128. Chen, S-Y.; Telfser, A.; Olzomer, E.; Vancuylenberg, C.; Zhou, M.; Beretta, M.; Li, C.; Alexopoulos, S.; Turner, N.; Byrne, F.; Santos, W.L.; Hoehn, K.L. Beneficial effects of simultaneously targeting calorie intake and calorie efficiency in diet-induced obese mice. Clin. Sci. 2024, 138, 173-187. DOI:10.1042/CS20231016

127. Liu, S.; Ebel, E.R.; Luniewski, A.; Zulawinska, J.; Simpson, M.L.; Kim, J.; Ene, N.; Braukmann, T.W.A.; Congdon, M.; Santos, W.L.; Yeh, E.; Guler, J. L. Direct long read visualization reveals metabolic interplay between two antimalarial drug targets, 2024,  submitted, bioRxiv: 10.1101/2023.02.13.528367

126. Campbell, R.; Buchbinder, N.; Szwetkowski, C.; Zhu, Y.; Piedl, K.; Truong, M.; Matson, J.; Santos, W.L.; Mevers, E. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activity of 3-substituted-2(5H)-Oxaboroles, ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2024, 15, 349–354. DOI:

125. Grams, J.R.; Shrader, C.W.; Murray, J.H.; Rosenblum, C.A.; Slebodnick, C.; Santos, W.L. Regio- and Stereoselective Umpolung α-Addition of Tricyclohexylphosphine to Propiolamides, 2023submitted.

124. Buchbinder, N.W.; Nguyen, L.H.; Beck, O.N.; Bage, A.D.; Slebodnick, C.; Santos, W.L. Chemo-, Regio- and Stereoselective cis-Hydroboration of 1,3-Enynes: Copper-catalyzed Access to (Z,Z)- and (Z,E)-2-Boryl-1,3-dienes. Submitted.

123. Grams, R.J.; Santos, W.L.; Scorei, I.R.; Abad-Garcia, A.; Bita, A.; Cerecettto, H.; Vinas, C.; Soriano-Ursua, M.A. The Rise of Boron-Containing Compounds: Advancements in Synthesis, Medicinal Chemistry and Emerging Pharmacology. Chem. Rev. 2024, in press. DOI:

122. Chen, S-Y, Beretta, M; Olzomer, E.M.; Alexopoulos, S.J.; Shah, D.P.; Byrne, F.L.; Salamoun, J.M.; Garcia, C.J.; Smith, G.C.; Larance, M.; Philp, A.; Turner, N.; Santos, W.L.; Cantley, J.; Hoehn, K.L. Head-to-head comparison of BAM15, semaglutide, rosiglitazone, NEN, and calorie restriction on metabolic physiology in female db/db mice. Biochim. Biophys. Acta – Mol. Basis Dis20241870, 166908.


121. Beretta, M.; Dai, Y.; Olzomer, E.M.; Vancuylenburg,  C.S.; Santiago-Rivera, J.A.;  Philp, A.M.; Hargett, S.R.; Li, K.; Shah, D.P.; Chen, S-Y.; Alexopulos, S.J.; Harris, T.E.; Lee, B.; Walthier, M.; Cermak, J.M.; Tucker, S.P.; Turner, N.;  Bayliss, D.A.; Philp, A.; Byrne, F.L.; Santos, W.L.; Hoehn, K.L. Liver-selective imidazolopyrazine mitochondrial uncoupler SHD865 reverses adiposity and glucose intolerance in mice. Diabetes 2023, db230233.


120. Shrader, C.W.; Foster, D.; Kharel, Y.; Huang, T.; Lynch, K.R.; Santos, W.L. Imidazole-Based Sphingosine-1-phosphate Transporter Spns2 Inhibitors. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.  2023, 96, 129516.

119. Akram, M.O.; Vogels, C.M.; Santos, W.L.; Westcott, S.A.; Martin, C.D. Addition of a Phosphinoboronate Ester to Borole and Borafluorene. SynLett 2023, 34, 2193-2196.  DOI: 10.1055/a-2158-9726


118. Burgio, A.L.; Buchbinder, N.W.; Santos, W.L. Regio- and Stereoselective Copper-Catalyzed Borylation-Protodeboronation of 1,3-Diynes: Access to (Z)-1,3-Enynes. Org. Lett. 2023, 25, 2652–2656.

117. Li, H.; Ehnstrom, J.; Milton, M.; Santos, W.L.; Zell, M.; Dai, Y. Identification and Enrichment of a UV-induced Degradant of Anagrelide Drug Substance. J.  Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2023, 229, 115352.

116. Burgio, A.; Shrader, C.W.; Kharel, Y.; Huang, T.; Salamoun, J.; Lynch, K.R.; Santos, W.L. 2-Aminobenzoxazole Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors of the Sphingosine-1-phosphate Transporter Spinster Homolog 2 (Spns2). J. Med. Chem. 2023, 66, 5873–5891.

115. Kharel, Y.; Huang, T.; Santos, W.L.; Lynch, K.R. Assays for the Sphingosine 1-phosphate Transporter Spinster Homolog 2 (Spns2). SLAS Disc. 2023, 28, 284-287.


114. Murray, J.; Burgio, A.; Beretta, M.; Hargett, S.; Olzomer, E.; Grams, R.J.; Garcia, C.; Li, C.; Salamoun, J.; Hoehn, K.; Santos, W.L. Oxadiazolopyridine Derivatives as Efficacious Mitochondrial Uncouplers in the Prevention of Diet-Induced Obesity. J. Med. Chem. 2023, 66, 3876–3895.

113.  Chen, S-Y.; Beretta, M.; Olzomer, E.M.; Wong, D.Y.; Alexopoulos, S.J.; Shah, D.P.; Aleksovska, I.; Salamoun, J.M.; Garcia, C.J.; Cochran, B.J.; Smith, G.C.; Byrne, F.L.; Morris, M.M.; Santos, W.L.; Cantley, J.; Hoehn, K.L. Targeting negative energy balance with calorie restriction and mitochondrial uncoupling in db/db mice. Mol. Metab. 2023, 69, 101684.



112. Dye, K.J.; Vogelaar, N.J.; O’Hara, M.; Sobrado, P.; Santos, W.L.; Carlier, P.R.; Yang, Z. Discovery of two inhibitors of the type IV pilus assembly ATPase as potential antivirulence compounds. Microbiol. Spectr. 2022, e0387722,  in press. DOI: 10.1128/spectrum.03877-22

111. Jos, S.; Tan, C.; Thilmany, P.; Saadane, A.; Evano, G.; Santos, W.L. Phosphine-Catalyzed Regio- and Stereo-selective Hydroboration of Ynamides to (Z)-β-borylenamides. Chem. Commun. 2022, 58, 13751-13754. DOI:

110. Tanaka, S.; Zheng, S.; Kharel, Y.; Fritzemeier, R.G.; Huang, T.; Foster, D.; Poudel, N.; Goggins, E.; Yamaoka, Y.; Rudnicka, K.P.; Lipsey, J.E.; Radel, H.V.; Ryuh, S.M.; Inoue, T.; Yao, J.; Rosin, D.L.; Schwab, S.R.; Santos, W.L.; Lynch, K.R.; Okusa, M.D. S1P signaling in perivascular cells enhances inflammation and fibrosis in the kidney. Science Trans. Med. 2022, 14, eabj2681.

  • highlighted in a commentary: Idowu and Parikh, Sci. Transl. Med. 2022, 14, eadd2826.

109. Dai, Y.; Santiago-Rivera, J.A.; Hargett, S.; Salamoun, J.M.; Hoehn, K.L.; Santos, W.L.  Conversion of oxadiazolo[3,4-b]pyrazines to imidazo[4,5-b]pyrazine via a tandem reduction-cyclization sequence generates new mitochondrial uncouplers. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2022, 73, 128912.

108. Jos, S.; Szwetkowski, C.; Slebodnick, C.; Ricker, R.; Chan, K.L.; Chan, W.C.; Radius, U.; Lin, Z.; Marder, T.B.; Santos, W.L. Transition Metal-Free Regio- and Stereo- Selective trans Hydroboration of 1,3-Diynes: A Phosphine Catalyzed Access to (E)-1-Boryl-1,3-Enynes. Chem. Eur. J. 2022, e202202349. DOI: 10.1002/chem.202202349

107.  Pashikanti, S.; Foster, D.; Kharel, Y.; Brown, A.; Bevan, D.; Lynch, K.R.; Santos, W.L. In Vivo Active Sphingosine Kinase 2 Inhibitors: Rigid Aliphatic Tail Derivatives Deliver Potent and Selective Analogs. ACS Bio. & Med. Chem. Au 20222, 469-489.

106. Fritzemeier, R.; Foster, D.; Peralta, A.; Payette, M.; Kharel, Y.; Huang, T.; Lynch, K.R.; Santos, W.L. Discovery of in vivo active sphingosine-1-phosphate transporter (Spns2) inhibitors. J. Med. Chem. 2022, 65, 7656-7681.

105. Bowen, J.; Slebodnick, C.; Santos, W.L. Phosphine-catalyzed Hydroboration of Propiolonitriles: Access to (E)-1,2-vinylcyanotrifluoroborate derivatives. Chem. Commun.  2022, 58, 5984 – 5987.

104. Oyewole, O.; Dunnavant, K.; Bhattarai, S.; Kharel, Y.; Lynch, K.L.; Santos, W.L.; Reid, S.P. A Novel Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor Suppresses Chikungunya Virus Infection. Viruses202214,


103. Szwetkowski, C.; Slebodnick, C.; Santos, W.L. Regio- and stereoselective copper-catalyzed α,β-protoboration of allenoates: access to Z-β,γ-unsaturated β-boryl esters. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2022, 20, 3287-3291. DOI: 10.1039/D2OB00423B

102. Grams, R.J.; Lawal, M.M.; Szwetkowski, C.; Foster, D.; Rosenblum, C.A.; Slebodnick, C.; Welborn, V.V.; Santos, W.L. Organocatalytic trans Semireduction of Primary and Secondary Propiolamides: Substrate Scope and Mechanistic Studies. Adv. Syn. Cat. 2022, 364, 172-178. DOI 10.1002/adsc.202101020 

101. Gates, A.M.; Jos, S.; Santos, W.L. Ligand-free copper-catalyzed borylative defluorination: Access to gem-difluoroallyl boronic acid derivatives. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2022, 20, 366-374.  DOI: 10.1039/D1OB01533H.

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100. Bose, S.;* Mao, L.;* Kuehn, L.; Radius, U.;* Nekvinda, J.; Santos, W.L.;* Westcott, S.A.;* Steel, P.G.;* Marder, T.B.*  First-Row d-Block Element-Catalyzed Carbon-Boron Bond Formation and Related Processes. Chem. Rev2021121, 13238-13341.  * indicates corresponding author

99. Li, H.; Sibley, C.D.; Kharel, Y.; Huang, T.; Brown, A.M.; Wonilowicz, L.G.; Bevan, D.R.; Lynch, K.R.; Santos, W.L. Lipophilic Tail Modifications of (R)-Prolinol Scaffold Reveal Dual Sphingosine Kinase 1 and 2 Inhibitors. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2021, 30, 115941.

98. Murray, J.H.; Santos, W.L. Bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)[2′,4′,6′-tris-(1-methylethyl)[1,1′-biphenyl]-2-yl]-phosphine and Dicyclohexyl[2′,4′,6′-tris(1-methylethyl)[1,1′-biphenyl]-2-yl]phosphine (XPhos). e-EROS Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, 2021,

97. Jos, S.; Santos, W.L. Copper-catalyzed Synthesis of α-Trifluoromethylacrylates from Trifluoroborylacrylates via Stereoretentive Radical Trifluoromethylation. Adv. Syn. Catal. 2021, 363, 425–430. VIP communication

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96. Congdon, M.; Fritzemeier, R.G.;  Kharel, Y.; Brown, A.M.;  Serbulea, V.; Bevan, D.R.;  Lynch, K.R.; Santos, W.L. Probing the Substitution Pattern of Indole-Based Scaffold Reveal Potent and Selective Sphingosine Kinase 2 Inhibitors. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2021, 212, 113121.

95. Chen, S-Y; Beretta, M.;  Alexopoulos, S.J.;  Shah, D.;  Olzomer, E.M.; Hargett, S.R.; Childress, E.S.; Salamoun, J.M.; Roseblade, A.; Cranfield, C.; Rawling, T.; Tucker, S.P.; Santos, W.L.; Hoehn, K.L. Potent mitochondrial uncoupler SHC517 reverses diet-induced obesity in mice. Metabolism 2021, 117, 154724. 

94. McDaniels, J.M.; Huckaby, A.C.; Carter, S.A.; Lingeman, S.; Francis, A.; Congdon, M.; Santos, W.L.; Phillips, M.A.; Rathod, P.K.; Guler, J. A. Extra-chromosomal DNA amplicons in antimalarial resistant Plasmodium falciparumMol. Microbiol. 2021, 115, 574-590.

93. Snead, R. J.; Nekvinda, J.; Santos, W.L. Copper(II)-catalyzed Protoboration of Allenes in Aqueous Media and Open Air. New J. Chem. 2020DOI: 10.1039/D0NJ02010A . Invited contribution: “Boron & Beyond – Todd B. Marder’s Contributions to Chemistry”

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92. Peck, C.; Nekvinda, J.; Santos, W.L. Diboration of 3-Substituted Propargylic Alcohols using a Bimetallic Catalyst System: Access to (Z)-Allyl, Vinyldiboronates. Chem. Commun. 2020, 56, 10313-10316.

91. Grams, R.J.; Garcia, C.J.; Szwetkowski, C.; Santos, W.L. Catalytic, Transition Metal-Free Semireduction of Propiolamide Derivatives: Scope and Mechanistic Investigation. Org. Lett. 2020,  22,  7013–7018.

90. Fritzemeier, R.G.; Nekvinda, J.; Vogels, C.M.; Rosenblum, C.A.; Slebodnick, C.; Westcott, S.A.; Santos, W.L. Organocatalytic trans Phosphinoboration of Internal Alkynes, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2020, 59, 14358 –14362.

89. Nekvinda, J.; Santos, W.L. Copper-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Organoboron Compounds in Anilkumar, G. and Saranya, S. (eds) Copper Catalysis in Organic Synthesis, Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, 2020,  p. 23-50.


88. Salamoun, J.M.; Garcia, C.J.; Hargett, S.R.; Murray, J.; Chen, S-Y; Beretta, M.; Alexopoulos, S.J.;  Shah, D.;  Olzomer, E.M.; Tucker, S.P.; Hoehn, K.L. and Santos, W.L. 6-Amino-[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-ol Derivatives as Efficacious Mitochondrial Uncouplers in STAM Mouse Model of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis,  J. Med. Chem. 2020, 63, 6203-6224.

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87. Liu, X.;  Ming, W.; Luo, X.; Friedrich, A.; Maier, J.; Radius, U.; Santos, W.L.;  Marder, T.B. Regio- and Stereoselective Synthesis of 1,1-Diborylalkenes via Brønsted Base-Catalyzed Mixed Diboration of Alkynes with BpinBdan, Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2020, 1941-1946.

86. Murray, J.; Hargett, S.; Hoehn, K.L.; Santos, W.L. Anilinopyrazines as potential mitochondrial uncouplers, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett2020, 30, 127057.

85. Alexopoulos, S.J.; Chen, S.; Brandon, A.E.; Salamoun, J.M.; Byrne, F.L.; Garcia, C.J.; Beretta, M.; Olzomer, E.M.; Shah, D.P.; Philp, A.M.; Hargett, S.R.; Lawrence, R.T.; Lee, B.; Sligar, J.; Carrive, P.; Tucker, S.P.; Philp, A.; Lackner, C.; Turner, N.; Cooney, G.J.; Santos, W.L.; Hoehn, K.L. Mitochondrial uncoupler BAM15 reverses diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice, Nat. Commun. 2020, 11, 2397.

84. Kharel, Y.; Huang, T.; Salamon, A.; Harris, T.E.; Santos, W.L.; Lynch, K.R. Clearance of sphingosine 1-phosphate from blood, Biochem. J. 2020, 477, 925–935.

83. Childress, E.S.; Salamoun, J.M.; Hargett, S.R.; Santiago-Rivera, J.; Garcia, C.J.; Alexopoulos, S.J.; Chen, S-Y; Dai, Y.; Hoehn, K.L. and Santos, W.L. [1,2,5]Oxadiazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine-5,6-diamine Derivatives  as Mitochondrial Uncouplers for the Potential Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis, J. Med. Chem. 2020, 63, 2511-2526,

82. Sibley, C.D.; Morris, E.A.; Kharel, Y.; Brown, A.M.; Bevan, D.R.; Lynch, K.R.; Santos, W.L. Discovery of a Small Side Cavity in Sphingosine Kinase 2 that Enhances Inhibitor Potency and Selectivity, J. Med. Chem. 2020, 63, 1178-1198.

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81. Blais-Lecours, P.; Laouafa, S.; Arias-Reyes, C.; Santos, W.L.; Joseph, V.; Halayko, A. J.; Soliz, J.; Marsolais, D. A. Metabolic adaptation of airway smooth muscle cells to a SPHK2 substrate precedes cytostasis. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 202062, 35-42.

80. Byrne, F.; Olzomer, E.; Marriott, G.; Quek, L.; Katen, A.; Su, J.; Nelson, M.; Hart-Smith, G.; Larance, M.; Sebesfi, V.; Cuff, J.; Martyn, G.; Childress, E.; Alexopoulos, S.p; Poon, I.; Faux, M.; Burgess, A.; Reid, G.; McCarroll, J.; Santos, W.; Quinlan, K.; Turner, N.; Fazakerley, D.; Kumar, N.; Hoehn, K. Phenotypic screen for oxygen consumption rate identifies a cancer-selective naphthoquinone that induces mitochondrial oxidative stress, Redox Biol. 2020,  28, 101374.


79. Fritzemeier, R.G.; Medici, E.J.; Szwetkowski, C.; Wonilowicz, L.G.; Sibley, C.D.; Slebodnick, C.; Santos, W.L. Facile Route to Air and Moisture Stable β-Difluoroboryl Acrylamides, Org. Lett. 2019,  21, 8053-8057.

78. Grams, R.J.; Fritzemeier, R.G.; Slebodnick, C.; Santos, W.L. Transition Metal-Free trans Hydroboration of Propiolamides: Access to Primary and Secondary (E)-beta-borylacrylamides. Org. Lett. 2019,  21, 6795-6799.

Highlighted in Organic Chemistry Portal

77. Gates, A.M.; Santos, W.L. Diboron-mediated semireduction of terminal allenes.  Synthesis, 2019,  51, 4619–4624

76. Peralta, N.; Dai, Y.; Sherpa, C.; Le Grice, S.F.; Santos, W.L. Molecular Recognition of HIV-1 RNAs with Branched Peptides. Methods Enzymol2019, 623, 373-400.

75. Verma, A.; Grams, J.; Rastatter, B.P.; Santos, W.L. Transition metal-free α borylation-protodeborylation of alkynoic acids. Tetrahedron2019, 75, 2113-2117. (Special Issue on Frustrated Lewis Acids and Organoboranes) 

74. Dai, Y.; Peralta, A.N.; Wynn, J.E.; Sherpa, C.; Li, H.; Verma, A.; Le Grice, S.F.J.; Santos, W.L. Molecular Recognition of a Branched Peptide with HIV-1 Rev Response Element. Bioorg. Med. Chem.2019, 27, 759-1765.  Invited article for a special issue on targeting RNA.

73. Worrell, B.L.; Brown, A.M.; Santos, W.L.; Bevan, D.R. In silico Characterization of Structural Distinctions Between Isoforms of Human and Mouse Sphingosine Kinases for Accelerating Drug Discovery.  ACS J. Chem. Inf. Model.2019, 59, 2339-2351.  DOI: 10.1021/acs.jcim.8b00931.

72. Hoagland, D.; Santos, W.L.; Poelzing, S.; Gourdie, R. The Role Of The Gap Junction Perinexus In Cardiac Conduction: Potential As A Novel Anti-Arrhythmic Drug Target. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol2019, 144, 41-50.

71. Magill, B.; Guo, X.; Peck, C.; Reyes, R.; See, E.; Santos, W.L.; Robinson, H. Multi-photon patterning of photoactive o-nitrobenzyl ligands bound to gold surfaces. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.2019,18, 30-44 .



70. Cao, R.; Li, J.; Kharel, Y.; Zhang, C.; Santos, W.L.; Lynch, K.R.; Zuo, Z.; Hu, S. Photoacoustic Microscopy Reveals the Hemodynamic Basis of Sphingosine 1-phosphate Neuroprotection against Ischemic Stroke. Theranostics, 20188, 6111-6120. doi:10.7150/thno.29435.


69. Dai, Y.; Peralta, A.N.; Wynn, J.E.; Chringma, S.; Jayaraman, B.; Li, H.; Verma, A.; Frankel, A.D.; Le Grice, S.F.; Santos, W.L. Discovery of a Branched Peptide that Recognizes the Rev Response Element (RRE) RNA and Blocks HIV-1 Replication. J. Med. Chem., 2018,  61, 9611-9620,  DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b01076.

68. Fritzemeier, R.; Gates, A.; Guo, X.; Lin, Z.; Santos, W.L. Transition metal-free trans hydroboration of alkynoic acid derivatives: Experimental and theoretical studies. J. Org. Chem. 201883, 10436−10444. DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.8b01493.

67. Hemming, D.; Fritzemeier, R.; Wescott, S.A.; Santos, W.L.; Steel, P.G. Copper-Boryl Mediated Organic Synthesis. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2018, 47, 7477-7494 .  DOI:10.1039/C7CS00816C

66. Kharel, H.; Agah, S.; Mendelson, A.J.; Eletu, O.T.; Gesualdi, J.; Smith, J.S.; Santos, W.L.; Lynch, K.R. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a Platform for Assessing Sphingolipid Lipid Kinase Inhibitors. PLoS ONE 2018, 13, e0192179.

65. Childress, E. S.; Alexopoulos, S. J.; Hoehn, K. L.; Santos, W. L. Small Molecule Mitochondrial Uncouplers and Their Therapeutic Potential. J. Med. Chem201861, 4641-4655. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b01182


64. Fritzemeier. R.; Santos, W.L. Brønsted Base Catalyzed Regio- and Stereoselective trans Silaboration of Propargylamides: Access to 1,2-Vinylborasilanes. Chem. Eur. J. 2017, 23, 15534-15537.

63. Adamiak, M; Chelvarajan, L.; Lynch, K.R.; Santos, W.L.; Abdel-Latif, A. and Ratajczak, M. Mobilization studies in mice deficient in sphingosine kinase 2 support a crucial role of the plasma level of sphingosine-1-phosphate in the egress of hematopoietic stem progenitor cells. Oncogene2017,8, 65588-65600.

62. See, E.M.; Peck, C.L.; Santos, W.L.; Robinson, H.D. Light-Directed Patchy Particle Fabrication and Assembly from Isotropic Silver Nanoparticles. Langmuir, 201733, 10927–10935. DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b02307


61. Wynn, J.E.; Zhang, W.; Falkinham, J.; Santos, W.L. Branched peptides: acridine and boronic acid derivatives as antimicrobial agents. ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2017, 8, 820–823. DOI: .

60. Childress, E.; Kharel, Y.; Brown, A.; Bevan, D.R.; Lynch, K.R.; Santos, W.L. Transforming Sphingosine Kinase 1 Inhibitors into Dual and Sphingosine Kinase 2 Selective Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis, and In Vivo Activity. J. Med. Chem. 201760, 3933-3957. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b00233.

59. See, E.; Peck, C.; Guo, X.; Santos, W.L.; Robinson, H. Plasmon-Induced Photoreaction of ortho-Nitrobenzyl Based Ligands Under 550nm Light. J. Phys. Chem2017121, 13114–13124. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b00707


58. Verma, A.; Snead, R.F.; Dai, Y.; Slebodnick, C.; Yang, Y.; Yu, H.; Yao, F.; Santos, W.L. Substrate-assisted, Transition Metal-free Diboration of Alkynamides with Mixed Diboron: Regio- and Stereoselective Access to trans 1,2-Vinyldiboronates. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed201756, 5111-5115. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201700946
This article was recently highlighted in Synfacts, 201713, 0644.


57. Valenciano, A.; Ramsey, A.C.; Santos, W.L.; Mackey, Z.B. Discovery and antiparasitic activity of AZ960 as a Trypanosoma brucei ERK8 inhibitor, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.2016, 24, 4647-4651. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2016.07.069


56. Verma, A.; Santos, W.L. Copper-Catalyzed Coupling Reactions of Organoboron Compounds. Boron Reagents in Synthesis, 2016, 313-356. DOI:10.1021/bk-2016-1236.ch010

55. Wynn, J.E.; Zhang, W.; Tebit, D.M.; Gray, L.R.; hammarskjold, M-L.; Rekosh, D.R. and Santos, W.L. Synergistic Effect of Intercalator and Lewis Acid-base Branched Peptide Complexes: Boosting Affinity Towards HIV-1 RRE RNA, MedChemComm20167, 1436-1440. DOI: 10.1039/C6MD00171H .

54. Pashikanti, S.; Calderone, J.A.; Nguyen, M.K.; Sibley, C.D.; Santos, W.L. Regio- and Stereoselective Copper(II)-Catalyzed Hydrosilylation of Activated Allenes in Water: A Convenient Access to Vinylsilanes. Org. Lett.201618, 2443-2446. DOI:10.1021/acs.orglett.6b00981.

53. Lynch, K.R.; Thorpe, S.B.; Santos, W.L. Sphingosine kinase inhibitors: a patent review (2005-2015). Exp. Op. Ther. Pat.201626, 1409-1416. DOI:

52. Nelson, A.K.; Peck, C.L.; Rafferty, S.M.; Santos, W.L. Chemo-, Regio-, and Stereoselective Copper(II)-Catalyzed Boron Addition to Acetylenic Esters and Amides in Aqueous Medium. J. Org. Chem201681, 4269-4279. DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.6b00648.


51. Wynn, J.E.; Zhang, W.; Tebit, D.M.; Gray, L.R.; Hammarskjold, M-L.; Rekosh, D.R. and Santos, W.L. Characterization and in vitro activity of a branched peptide boronic acid that interacts with HIV-1 RRE RNA, Bioorg. Med. Chem. 201624, 3947-3952.


50. Congdon, M.; Kharel, Y.; Brown, A.; Lewis, S.L.; Bevan, D.R.; Lynch, K.R. and Santos, W.L. Structure-activity relationship studies and molecular modeling of naphthalene-based sphingosine kinase 2 inhibitors. ACS Med. Chem. Lett20167, 229-234. DOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.5b00304.
This work was featured on the front cover of the journal.

49. Babahosseini, H.; Srinivasarahavan, V.; Zhao, Z.; Gillam, F.; Childress, E.; Strobl, J.; Santos, W.L.; Zhang, C.; Agah, M. The Impact of Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor-Loaded Nanoparticles on Bioelectrical and Biomechanical Properties of Cancer Cells, Lab on a Chip201616, 23-31. doi: 10.1039/c5lc01201e


48. Kharel, Y.; Morris, E.A.; Congdon, M.; Thorpe, S.B.; Tomsig, J.L.; Santos, W.L. and Lynch, K.R. Sphingosine Kinase Type 2 and Blood S1P. J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 2015355, 23–31. DOI: 10.1124/jpet.115.225862

This article was recently highlighted in J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 2015355, 1.


47. Kenwood, B.M.; Calderone, J.A.; Taddeo, E.P.; Hoehn, K.L. and Santos, W.L. Structure-activity relationships of furazano[3,4-b]pyrazines as mitochondrial uncouplers. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 201525, 4858-4861. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2015.06.040. Invited contribution by Prof. Dale Boger, 25th anniversary symposium-in-print.


46. Wynn, J. and Santos, W.L. HIV-1 Drug Discovery: Targeting Folded RNA Structures With Branched Peptides. Org. Biomol. Chem., 201513, 5848-5858. DOI: 10.1039/C5OB00589B.

This article was recently highlighted in ChemInform, 2015,46, 29. DOI: 10.1002/chin.201529310.

45. Peck, C.L.; Calderone, J.A. and Santos, W.L. Copper(II)-catalyzed β-Borylation of Acetylenic Esters in Water. Synthesis, 201547, 2242-2248. DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1380524. Invited contribution on conjugate addition themed edition by Prof. Erick Carreira.

Highlighted in organic chemistry portal.

This article was recently highlighted in ChemInform, 2015,46, 50.DOI: 10.1002/chin.201550171.

44. Congdon, M.D.; Childress, E.S.; Patwardhan, N.N.; Gumkowski, J.; Morris, E.A.; Kharel, Y.; Lynch, K.R. and Santos, W.L. Structure-activity relationship studies of the lipophilic tail region of sphingosine kinase 2 inhibitors, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2015, 25, 4956-4960. DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2015.03.041. Invited contribution by Prof. Dale Boger, 25th anniversary symposium-in-print.

43. Guo, X.; Nelson, A.K.; Slebodnick, C. and Santos, W.L. Regio- and Chemoselective Diboration of Allenes with Unsymmetrical Diboron: Formation of Vinyl and Allyl Boronic Acid Derivatives, ACS Catal., 20155, 2172−2176. DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.5b00387.

42. Patwardhan, N.N.; Morris, E.A.; Raje, M.R.; Gao, M.; Kharel, Y.; Tomsig, J.L.; Lynch, K.R. and Santos, W.L.  “Structure-Activity Relationship Studies and In Vivo Activity of Guanidine-based Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitors: Discovery of SphK 1 and 2 Selective Inhibitors.” J. Med. Chem2015,  58 , 1879–1899. DOI: 10.1021/jm501760d.

41. Santos, W.L. and Lynch, K.R. Drugging Sphingosine Kinases. ACS Chem. Biol201510, 225-223. DOI: 10.1021/cb5008426


40. Ashry, A.; Kandas, I.; Wei, X.; Calderone, J.A.; Zhang, B.; Robinson, H.; Heflin, J.R.; Santos, W.L. and Xu, Y. The Impact of Lithography on the Fluorescence Dynamics of Self-Assembled Fluorophores,Opt. Express2014, 22, 1293512943. DOI:10.1364/OE.22.012935

39. Tang, X.; Benesch, M.G.K.; Dewald, J.; Patwardhan, N.; Santos, W.L.; McMullen, T.P.W. and Brindley, D.N. Expression of lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 in cancer cells attenuates lysophosphatidate signaling and tumor growth and metastasis in mice, 2014J. Lipid Res2014,  55, 2389-2400. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M053462

38. Islam, A. Zhang, B.; Khalifa, M.B.; Calderone, J.A.; Santos, W.L.; Heflin, J.R.; Robinson, H. and Xu, Y. Fluorescence Lifetime Based Characterization of Active and Tunable Plasmonic Nanostructures,Optics Express.201422, 20720-20726.

37. Calderone, J.A. and Santos, W.L. Copper(II)-Catalyzed Silylation of Activated Alkynes in Water: Diastereodivergent Access to (E)- or (Z)-β-Silyl-α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl and Carboxyl Compounds. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 4154 –4158. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201310695

This article was recently highlighted in Synfacts, 201410, 731.

This article was recently highlighted in ChemInform, 201445, 38. DOI: 10.1002/chin.201438046.

36. Carreon, A.; Santos, W.L.; Matson, J.B. and So, R. Cationic Polythiophenes as Responsive DNA-Binding Polymers. Polymer Chemistry20145, 314-317. DOI: C3PY01069D

35. Kenwood, B.M.; Weaver, J.L.; Bajwa, A.; Byrne, F.L.; Poon, I.V.; Murrow, B.A.; Calderone, J.A.; Huang, L.; Divakaruni, A.S.; Okabe, K.; Columbus, L.; Yan, Z.; Saucerman, J.J.; Smith, J.S.; Holmes, J.W.; Lynch, K.R.; Ravichandran, K.S.; Uchiyama, S.; Santos, W.L.; Rogers, G.W.; Okusa, M.D.; Bayliss, D.A. and Hoehn, K.L. Identification of a novel mitochondrial uncoupler with a broad effective range. Mol. Met2014, 3, 114-123. DOI: 10.1016/j.molmet.2013.11.005.

This article was highlighted in: Mol. Met, 2014, 3, 86.


34. Zhang, W.; Bryson, D.I.; Crumpton, J.B.; Wynn, J. and Santos, W. L. Targeting folded RNA: A branched peptide boronic acid that binds to large surface area of HIV-1 RRE RNA. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2013, 11, 6263-6271. DOI:10.1039/C3OB41053F
This work was featured on the front cover of the journal.

33. Daengngam, C.; Thorpe, S.; Guo, X.; Stoianov, S.; Santos, W. L.; Morris, J.; Robinson, H. High Photoreactivity of O-Nitrobenzyl Ligands on Gold. J. Phys. Chem. C2013117, 14165–14175. DOI:

32. Zhang, W.; Bryson, D.I.; Crumpton, J.B.; Wynn, J. and Santos, W. L. Branched Peptide Boronic Acids (BPBAs): A Novel Mode of Binding Towards RNA. Chem. Commun. 201349, 2436-2438. DOI: 10.1039/C3CC00243H.


31. Kharel, Y.; Raje, M.; Gao, M.; Gellett, A.M.; Tomsig, J.L.; Lynch, K.R. and Santos, W.L. Sphingosine kinase type 2 inhibition elevates circulating sphingosine-1-phosphate. Biochem. J. 2012447, 149-157. doi:10.1042/BJ20120609

30. Thorpe, S.B. and Santos, W.L. 4,8-Dimethyl-2-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocane, 2012, Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis [Online], John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. DOI:10.1002/047084289X.rn01517

29. Calderone, J.A. and Santos, W.L. Copper(II)-Catalyzed Silyl Conjugate Addition to α,β-Unsaturated Conjugated Compounds: Brønsted Base-Assisted Activation of Si–B Bond in Water. Org. Lett. 2012, 14, 2090-2093. DOI: 10.1021/ol300618j

This article was recently highlighted in:

28. Gude, L.; Berkovitch, S.S.; Santos, W.L.; Kutchukian, P.S.; Pawloski, A.R.; Kuimelis, R.; McGall, G. and Verdine, G.L. Mapping targetable sites on the human telomerase RNA pseudoknot/template domain using 2′-OMe RIPtide microarrays. J. Biol. Chem. 2012287, 18843-18853. click here.

27. Thorpe, S.B.; Calderone, J.A. and Santos, W.L. Unexpected copper (II) catalysis:  Catalytic amine base promoted β-borylation of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds in water. Org. Lett. 201214, 1918-1921. DOI: 10.1021/ol300575d.

This article was recently highlighted in ChemInform201243, no. doi: 10.1002/chin.201231192

Chemistry Portal

26. Knott, K.; Kharel, Y.; Raje, M.R.; Lynch, K.R. and Santos, W.L. Effect of alkyl chain length on sphingosine kinase 2 selectivity. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2012, 22, 6817-6820. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.01.050.

25. Crumpton, J.B. and Santos, W.L. Site-specific incorporation of diamondoids on DNA using click chemistry. Chem. Commun201248, 2018 – 2020. DOI:10.1039/C2CC16860J.

24. Raje, M.R.; Knott, K.; Kharel, Y.; Bissel, P.; Lynch, K.R. and Santos, W.L. Design, synthesis and biological activity of sphingosine kinase 2 selective inhibitors. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 201220, 183-194. DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2011.11.011.

23. Bryson, D.R.; Zhang, W.; McLendon, P.M.; Reineke, T.M. and Santos, W.L. Toward Targeting RNA Structure:  Branched Peptides as Cell-Permeable Ligands to TAR RNA. ACS Chem. Biol. 20127, 210–217. DOI: 10.1021/cb200181v.


22. Gao, M.; Thorpe, S.B.; Kleeberg, C.; Slebodnick, C.; Marder, T.B. and Santos, W.L. Structure and reactivity of a preactivated sp2-sp3 diboron reagent: Catalytic regioselective boration of alph, beta-unsaturated conjugated compounds. J. Org. Chem201176, 3997–4007. DOI: 10.1021/jo2003488.

This article was recently highlighted in:

  • Synfacts, 20119, 995
  • ChemInform, 201142, no. doi: 10.1002/chin.201133182

21. Sun, J.; Perfetti, M.T. and Santos, W.L. A method for the deprotection of alkylpinacolyl boronate esters. J. Org. Chem201176, 3571–3575. DOI: 10.1021/jo200250y.

20. Crumpton, J.B.; Zhang, W. and Santos, W.L. Facile analysis and sequencing of linear and branched peptide boronic acids by MALDI Mass Spectrometry. Anal. Chem201183, 3548–3554. DOI: 10.1021/ac2002565.

19. Thorpe, S.B.; Guo, Xi and Santos, W.L. Regio- and stereoselective copper-catalyzed b-borylation of allenoates by a preactivated diboron. Chem. Commun201147, 424-426. [pdf version]

This paper is part of an “Emerging Investigator Issue”.


18. Knott, K.; Fishovitz, J; Thorpe, S.B., Lee, I and Santos, W.L. N-terminal peptidic boronic acids selectively inhibit human ClpXP. Org. Biomol. Chem. 20108, 3451. [pdf version]

This paper is part of an Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry web theme issue on chemical biology.


17. Gao, M.; Thorpe, S.B. and Santos, W.L. Sp2-Sp3 Hybridized Mixed Diboron: Synthesis, Characterization and Copper-Catalyzed β-Boration of α, β-Unsaturated Conjugated Compounds. Org. Lett. 2009, 11, 3478-3481. [pdf version]

16. Bryson, D.I.; Zhang, W. and Santos, W.L. Screening of a Branched Peptide Library with HIV-1 TAR RNA. Mol. BioSyst. 2009, 5, 1070-1073. [pdf version]

This paper is part of an “Emerging Investigator Issue”. For biography of the contributors, click here.


15. Komazin-Meredith, G.; Petrella, R.; Santos, W.L.,Filman, D.J.; Hogle, J.M.; Verdine, G.L.; Karplus, M. and Coen, D.M. The Human Cytomegalovirus UL44 C Clamp Wraps around DNA. Structure 2008, 16, 1214-1226. [pdf version]

14. Komazin-Meredith, G.; Santos, W.L., Filman, D.J.; Hogle, J.M.; Verdine, G.L. and Coen, D.M. The positively charged surface of herpes simplex virus UL42 mediates DNA binding. J. Biol. Chem. 2008; doi:10.1074/jbc.M708691200. [pdf version]

13. Zhao, Z.; McKee, C.J.; Kessl, J.J.; Santos, W.L.; Daigle, J.E.; Engelman, A.; Verdine, G. and Kvaratshelia, M. Subunit specific protein footprinting reveals significant structural rearrangements and a role for N-terminal LYS-14 of HIV-1 integrase during viral DNA binding. J. Biol. Chem. 2008; doi:10.1074/jbc.M705241200. [pdf version]


12. Banerjee, A.; Santos, W.L. and Verdine, G.L. Disulfide trapping and structural characterization of an early intermediate in the pathway of damage search by MutM. Science , 2006 , 311 , 1153. [pdf version]

see the following highlight on NSLS [pdf version]

11. Johnson, A.A.; Santos, W.L.; Marchand, C.; Amin, R.; Verdine, G.L. and Pommier, Y. Interaction between HIV-1 integrase Q148 and a viral DNA cytosine is required for strand transfer. J. Biol. Chem. 2006 , 281 , 461. [pdf version]


10. Paz, Y.E.; Santos, W.L. and Verdine, G.L.  Toward determination of the structural basis for HIV-1 integrase substrate recognition.  Nucleus 200583, 12-14.


9. Santos, W.L.; Heasely, B.H.; Jarosz, R.; Carter, K.M.; Lynch, K.R. and Macdonald, T.L. Synthesis and biological evaluation of phosphonic and thiophosphoric acid derivatives of lysophosphatidic acid. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.2004 , 14 , 3473. [pdf version]


8. Kapetanovic, I.M.; Torchin, C.D.; Strong, J.M.; Yonekawa, W.D.; Lu, C.; Li, A.P.; Dieckhaus, C.M.; Santos, W.L .; Macdonald, T.L.; Sofia, R.D. and Kupferberg, H.J. Reactivity of atropaldehyde, a felbamate metabolite in human liver tissue in vitro. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2002 , 142 , 119-34. [pdf version]

7. Okusa, M.D., Ye, H., Huang, L.P., Heise, C.E., Santos, W.L., Macdonald, T.L., Lynch, K.R.A dual lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) antagonist (LPA(1)/LPA(3)), VPC 12249, reduces renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). J. Am. Soc. Neph200213, 140A.

6. Roller, S. G.; Dieckhaus, C. M.; Santos , W. L .; Duane Sofia, R. and Macdonald, T. L. Oxidation of 3-carbomoyl-2-phenylpropionaldehyde, a felbamate metabolite, by aldehyde dehydrogenase 1: significance in detoxification of felbamate. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2002 , 15 , 815-24. [pdf version]


5. Dieckhaus, C. M.; Roller, S.; Santos , W. L . and Macdonald, T. L. The role of glutathione s-transferases a1-1, p1-1 and m1-1 in the detoxification of 2-phenylpropenal, a reactive felbamate metabolite. Chem. Res. Toxicol.2001 , 14 , 511-516. [pdf version]

4. Dieckhaus, C. M.; Santos , W. L . and Macdonald, T. L. The chemistry and toxicology of 4-hydroxy-5-phenyl-1,3-oxazaperhydroin-2-one: a reactive metabolite in felbamate bioactivation. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2001, 14, 958-964. [pdf version]

3. Hooks, S. B.; Santos, W. L. ; Im, D-S., Heise, C. H.; Macdonald, T. L. and Lynch, K. R. Lysophosphatidic acid induced mitogenesis is regulated by lipid phosphate phosphatases and is Edg-receptor independent. J. Biol. Chem. 2001, 276 , 4611-4621. [pdf version]

2. Heise, C. E.; Santos, W. L .; Schreihofer, A. M.; Heasley, B. H.; Mukhin, Y. V.; Macdonald, T. L. and Lynch, K. R. Activity of 2-substituted lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) analogs at LPA receptors: discovery of a LPA 1 /LPA 3 receptor antagonist. Mol. Pharm. 2001 , 60 , 1173-1180. This work was highlighted in Mol. Pharm . 2001 , 60 , 1161-1164. [pdf version]


1. Santos , W. L .; Rossi, J. R.; Boggs, S. D. and Macdonald, T. L. The molecular pharmacology of lysophosphatidate signaling. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2000 , 905 , 232-242. [pdf version]